Kropotkin’s Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, published in 1902, is a repudiation of the theory of natural selection and competition. Arguing on factual biological and historical grounds, Kropotkin maintains that humans, being social animals, are more naturally inclined to cooperation than competition, and fare better in that environment.
Mutual Aid was also influenced by Kropotkin’s political philosophy, which had matured by the time he wrote the tract. By then, he had rejected the notions of authority and capitalism, and embraced anarchist communism, believing it to be closest to the spirit of human cooperation. (He later rejected the Bolsheviks on the grounds that Lenin applied authoritarian, rather than libertarian, methods to his revolution.)